Rabu, 09 Maret 2011

Diabetes and YOU: Sulfonylureas

Ok guys, it's time to pick up where we left off! We are heading back to the topic of diabetes! Let me just refresh your memory. Based on statistics released this January, 25.8 million children and adults in the United States, roughly 8.3% of the population have diabetes.There is still a whopping 7 million people undiagnosed and 79 million prediabetics in the US. Today, let's discuss the sulfonylureas, a class of oral hypoglycemics that are widely used for diabetes mellitus (type 2) management. In the following paragraph, I'm going to enlighten you on the mechanism of action, side effect profile, clinical effects and additional clinical pearls of this particular class of medication!  Let's begin, shall we?
First off, understand that the class sulfonylurea is broken down into three generations, first, second, and third generation sulfonylureas. Please find a list below....this list is not inclusive of EVERY sulfonylurea on the market!
1st Generation
  1. Orinase (tolbutamide)
  2. Tolinase (tolazamide)
  3. Diabinese (chlorpropamide)
2nd Generation
  1. Glucotrol & Glucotrol XL (glipizide)
  2. Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase (glyburide & micronized glyburide)
3rd Generation
  1. Amaryl (glimepiride)
Sulfoynylureas are very specific in their mechanism of action. They increase insulin production by acting directly on the beta cells of the pancreas. Although, there are many side effects of this class of medication, including bloating, nausea, heartburn, anemia, weight gain, sun sensitivity, metallic or change in taste, as with many other blood sugar lowering agents, the most prominent side effect of concern is....you guessed it....low blood sugar! The first generation is notoriously known to drop blood sugar more so than the second or third generation due to the fact that they can be easily displaced from their protein binding sites...thereby increasing their activity in the blood stream. So now that you've learned the basic activity and side effect profile, here are a few take home points when using these medications.
1.  May be taken with or without food however, Glucotrol (immediate release) should be taken prior to meals.
2.   Use caution and/or seek guidance from a healthcare professional if you have allergies to sulfa drugs.
3.  Be sure to maintain normal eating habits with oral hypoglycemic agents on board...helps minimize chances of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
4.  Always maintain a diabetic diet...low carbs and sugar
5.  Be sure to ask questions about any medications that you are taking after all....it is your life and your health!

Evolution Is Involved in the Development of Diabetes

Researchers believe that evolution is the root cause of Diabetes. Evolution is the transformation over time in the proportion of an individual being that is contrary in one or more inherited traits. Evolution occurs when there is a variation of inborn traits. Classifications of variation are mutation, genetic recombination, and gene flow.
Study has been conducted on Stanford University School of Medicine and they have recognized genetic variations in a hormone are concerned in the discharge of insulin - the substance that is responsible in regulating insulin. High blood sugar is linked with the development of diabetes that normally once the body is incapable of creating its own insulin.
The findings could help doctors to better know diabetes and find a way to cure it permanently. It shows that the disease progresses as our predecessor change from being hunters to be dependent in agriculture in the way of living.
According to Sheau Yu "Teddy" Hsu, PhD, assistant professor of obstetrics and gynecology and senior author of the study, there are 207 genetic areas, which can be connected to diabetes and obesity. They are able to identify the prevalence in the time since humans began depart from Africa about 60,000 years ago. 59 regions are identified in about 30% of the people in the HapMap project - a universal review distinction among inhabitants.
The researchers are able to distinguish around five genes with hereditary differences that appear regularly on Asians and/or Europeans, but not on Africans. One of the five genes is GIP (Glucanase Inhibitor Protein) and they found it as the most interesting among them. GIP stimulates insulin secretion in humans following a meal.
They agreed on one fact that the there are three individual transformations in the regions of GIP, the DNA closest to the GIP gene which also affects when and how it is transformed into protein - decreases the concentration of the hormone.

Living With Diabetes

Diabetes is becoming more and more prevalent in today's society, as a result of poor eating habits. Diabetes, though listed as one disease, is made up of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as gestational diabetes, are of which are pretty common. Each disease is a result of the body either not properly producing insulin or not properly utilizing insulin, and each can cause severe problems as a result of this improper relationship with insulin. Insulin is such an important part of the body's chemistry, as it is the hormone which converts sugars and starches into usable energy.
In Type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin at all. People dealing with Type 1 diabetes must often give themselves insulin shots to keep their levels up.
Type 2 diabetes is most common in older people, as well as in minorities. It is a result of the body's lack of ability to properly utilize insulin, or as a result of the body's lack of ability to produce sufficient insulin.
Gestational diabetes is common in pregnancy, and must be treated to ensure the health of the growing infant. Gestational diabetes in pregnancy often predicts type 2 diabetes in later life.
Carrying extra weight will undoubtedly put you at a high risk for diabetes, so weight loss is key in preventing diabetes. Even losing ten or twenty pounds will significantly reduce your risk of developing diabetes.
In order to correct diabetes without medicine, it will take a lot of self-control and a drastic change in eating habits. However, as a result of better eating and lifestyle habits, you will be overall much healthier and happier; it is not only diabetes that will be corrected.
Better eating habits will include a switch to a diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in fat, meat, and processed foods. Choosing a low fat diet will be the best help in correcting diabetes. Low-fat dairy products, low fat fish, and olive oil in cooking instead of heavy fats are all a great way to start off your new diet to a healthier you.
Adding just twenty minutes of exercise a day will also dramatically help with correcting diabetes. Taking a walk around the neighborhood, or riding a bike is a great way to enjoy the outside and get your exercise at the same time. You can also join a health center near you for pool exercising, which has been shown to be very easy on the joints.
It is important to monitor your blood glucose carefully, and to eat and exercise accordingly. A change in diet or lifestyle is never easy, but will benefit you immensely in the long run. Not only will your health improve, but you will lose weight, have more energy, and have an overall feeling of health and wellness. It is also important to consider medicines offered by your doctor, but lifestyle changes will be the key to managing diabetes. It is also a good idea to test your vitamin and mineral levels to ensure that you are making the right choices nutritionally.

Rabu, 02 Maret 2011

Examining Current Research Trends for Diabetes, Part 2

What is the future for Diabetes?  It has become what is frequently being called "epidemic proportions".  But still there is great hope in a number of research breakthroughs that could slow, and even end this epidemic.
Before you take any action that is contrary to your doctor's advice, you must discuss any questions concerning these "cutting edge" trends with him.  Remember that, though there have been great advances in the last few years, much more study is required before anyone can announce a cure, or even a more effective treatment.
In this article we will address the treatments for, and possible future cures for diabetes.
Treatments for Diabetes
There is growing excitement in the area of improved treatments for diabetes.  There are significant strides being made in this avenue, including implantable insulin pumps, insulin inhalers, oral insulin medication, and new, faster acting insulin. There is also progress being made in monitoring blood glucose levels, with developments in "pain-free" testing systems, and even continuous monitoring systems, that could worn like a wrist-watch.
The biggest gains, though, at this time has been islet cell transplants and gene therapy.  However, these advances are only effective for those with Type 1 diabetes, and have been found to be generally ineffective for those with Type 2 diabetes.
For those with Type 2 diabetes, there is hope through identifying a protein and neuropeptide called VGF which appears to play a key role in regulating energy levels and metabolism which results in an increase in the body's resistance to weight-gain.  This discovery could eventually result in a "diet" medication that could help regulate weight, particularly for those that are elderly, handicapped or otherwise incapable of proper exercise.
Cures for Diabetes?
So, are there cures for diabetes on the horizon?  Some researchers think so.  The best chances for a cure, or actually "cures" since Type 1 and Type 2 are significantly different from each other, appears to be in 3 separate developments.
For Type 1 diabetes, the primary focus is on the development of a vaccine that can be included in the vaccination cycle of a child that contains peptides that stops the destruction of pancreatic cells.  This would mean that the pancreas would continue to be able to produce insulin, thereby, "curing" the primary cause for Type 1 diabetes.  The greatest hope for existing Type 1 cases, however, remains islet cell transplantation, transplanting cells from a healthy pancreas into the damaged pancreas, thereby increasing insulin production.
For Type 2 diabetes, the brightest star seems to be a recently discovered protein, called GPR120.  The primary function of this protein is to stimulate the release of a natural peptide, which then stimulates a greater production of insulin.
There are several food supplement manufacturer's which claim that proper nutrition is the best hope for reversing and even curing diabetes.  Although there are no official endorsements of this claim, it may have some merit.  Since it appears that nutrition may be a leading factor in the development of diabetes, it stands to reason that it may also be the cure.
In particular, it has been determined that the mineral Chromium does help in regulating blood sugar, and the mineral Vanadium increases insulin sensitivity, the major issue with Type 2 diabetes.  Studies also indicate that Magnesium is commonly below normal in people with diabetes.
Though there is no cure yet for diabetes, researchers are encouraged by the discoveries made over the past few years.  And there is hope that there will be improved treatments and even cures for both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in the not too distant future.
For now, the best proven ways to control diabetes is through diet and exercise, and these methods cannot be forsaken. As a diabetic, you may look to the future with hope for an active and healthy life.